Barium Nitrate (Ba(NO3)2) single crystals exhibit optical properties that make them well-suited for use in Raman shifting and related laser applications. These properties include:

  • Optical transmission across a broad range from 350 to 1800 nm
  • Large Raman shift of 1047 cm-1 toward longer wavelengths
  • High quantum conversion efficiency for first and second Stokes components

Applications include the efficient generation of 1.53 µm eye-safe wavelengths.

Physical and Optical Properties
Chemical Formula Ba(NO3)2
Crystal Symmetry Cubic
Class P23
Lattice Constant

8.11 Å

Density 3.244 g/cm3
Mohs Hardness 2.5 - 3
Refractive Index λ = 0.5461 µm 1.5756
λ = 1.06 µm 1.5551
LDT (uncoated (110) faces at λ = 0.53 µm, 50 ns pulses) 10-17 J/cm2
Vibrational Raman mode 1047 cm-1
Size and Orientation

Available in cross sections up to 10 x 10 mm and lengths up to 75 mm, Barium Nitrate crystals are typically oriented, finished and coated as follows:

  • Oriented with laser path along the <110> axis
  • Orientation accuracy to ± 5 arcmin
  • Entrance and exit faces flat and parallel, or at Brewster angle
  • Standard parallelism 3-5 arcmin (tighter parallelism or a larger wedge upon request)
  • Transmitted wavefront λ/6 on 50 mm long crystals
  • Dielectric coating available to protect polished surfaces from ambient moisture fogging

Inhouse crystal growth

All barium nitrate crystal growth, orientation, fabrication, polishing, and testing is performed at our Northvale, NJ facility, ensuring complete traceability and satisfaction with every single crystal.

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Zinc Germanium Phosphide (ZGP) exhibits a large nonlinear coefficient, high laser damage threshold, and high thermal conductivity. The properties make ZGP ideally suited to high power applications. Most commonly, ZGP is used in OPOs, OPAs, and OPCPAs pumped with holmium and thulium fiber lasers to generate high power, tunable output between 3.0µm and 6.0µm, though other processes are also possible. ZGP is mechanically robust and stable over a wide operating temperature range.

ZGP single crystals are grown at Inrad Optics via the horizontal gradient freeze method and are available in lengths up to 25 mm. Our post-processing techniques drastically reduce absorption in the near infrared—a critical parameter for determining viable pump wavelengths.

 

Material Properties 
Chemical ZnGeP2
Crystal Symmetry and Class tetragonal, -42m
Lattice Parameters a =  5.467 Å 
c = 12.736 Å
Density 4.162  g/cm3
Mohs Hardness 5.5
Optical Class Positive uniaxial
Userful Transmission Range 2.0 μm - 10.0 μm
Thermal Conductivity  
@ T= 293 K
35 W/m∙K (⊥c)
36 W/m∙K ( ∥ c)
Thermal Expansion
@ T = 293 K to 573 K
17.5 x 106 K-1 (⊥c)
15.9 x 106 K-1 ( ∥ c)

Dimensions

Standard cross sections are 6 x 8 mm and 8 x 12 mm. Crystal lengths range from 1 to 25 mm. Custom sizes are also available on request.

Finishing

  • Crystals can be fabricated with a 30-arcmin wedge in the non-tuning direction.
  • Anti-reflective coatings are available for OPO crystals.

Orientations

The standard ZGP crystal orientation is for type I phasematching at an angle of θ = 54°, which is suitable for use in OPOs pumped at wavelengths between 2.05µm and 2.1µm to generate mid-infrared output between 3.0µm and 6.0µm. Custom orientations are available on request.

Fill out this RFQ form for help in configuring your crystal.

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Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and potassium dideuterium phosphate (KD*P) crystals offer excellent UV transmission, damage threshold and birefringence. Deuterated KDP, or KD*P, features an extended transmission range in the infrared, IR-shifted OH absorption bands, and an increased electro-optic coefficient. KD*P is grown at Inrad Optics and can be grown at varying deuteration percentages.

KDP and KD*P crystals are employed in a variety of frequency conversion applications. Among these are second, third and fourth harmonic generation in Q-switched and phase-locked Nd:YAG lasers.

In addition to harmonic generation, KDP and KD*P are well suited to use in Pockels cells and Q-switches due to their high electro-optic coefficients. They can be operated in transverse electro-optic geometries with large apertures while still maintaining low quarterwave voltages.

 

Material Properties
Chemical Formula KH2PO4 KD2PO4
Crystal Symmetry and Class tetragonal, -42m tetragonal, -42m
Lattice Parameters a = 7.460 Å a = 7.4697 Å
c = 6.965 Å c = 6.9766 Å
Density 2.332 g/cm3 2.355 g/cm3
Mohs Hardness 2.5 2.5
Optical Class Uniaxial negative Uniaxial negative
Transmission Range 0.2 µm - 1.7 µm 0.2 µm - 1.9 µm
Thermal Conductivity κ11 = 1.76 W/m∙K κ11 = 2.09 W/m∙K
κ33 = 1.30 W/m∙K κ33 = 1.86 W/m∙K
Thermal Expansion
for T = 293 - 1173 K
α11 = 19 x 10-6 /K
α33 = 44 x 10-6/K
α11 = 20.1 x 10-6 /K
α33 = 40.7 x 10-6 /K
Electro Optic Coefficients
@ 0.633 μm

T: unclamped
S: clamped

r63S = -8.8 pm/V
r63T = -10 pm/V
r63S = -24.1 pm/V
r63T = -25.8 pm/V

Dimensions

The solution growth process used for KDP and KD*P produces large single crystal boules, thus enabling cost effective large aperture crystals. Standard sizes range up to 60 mm in diameter, and much larger custom crystals are achievable.

Finishing

  • Protective AR coatings – both solgel and dielectric
  • Electrodes for Q-switches
  • Ring mounts compatible with standard optomechanics

Fill out this RFQ form for help in configuring your crystal.

Configuration Options

KDP Type I Standard Orientations
Designation Angle, θ Operation Input Output
A 83.3° SHG 518-535 nm 259-267 nm
B 69.1° SHG 531-595 nm 266-297 nm
B1 73.4° SHG 524-571 nm 262-285 nm
R6G 60.2° SHG 559-673 nm 280-336 nm
C 54.9° SHG 585-754 nm 293-377 nm
D 46.6° SHG 648-940 nm 324-470 nm
M2 64.6° SHG 543-648 nm 272-324 nm
MIX 1064nm + (294-383 nm) 231-281 nm
M3 76.4° SHG 520-557 nm 260-278 nm
THG 1064nm + (273-307 nm) 217-238 nm
41.2° SHG 1064 nm 532 nm
47.3° THG 1064 nm + 532 nm 355 nm
TSS 45° SHG 700-1000 nm 350-500 nm
         
KD*P Type I & II Standard Orientations
Designation Angle, θ Operation Input Output
53.7° SHG (II) 1064 nm 532 nm
M1 59.5° THG (II) 1064 nm + 532 nm 355 nm
SFM (II) 1064 nm + (421-1000 nm) 355 nm
86° FHG (II) angle tune 532 nm 302-515 nm
90° FHG (II) temp. tune 532 nm 266 nm
36.6° SHG (I) 1064 nm 532 nm
46.8° THG (I) 1064 nm + 532 nm 355 nm

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Lithium niobate is a ferroelectric material with excellent electro-optic, nonlinear optical, and piezoelectric properties. It is one of the most thoroughly characterized electro-optic materials, and Inrad Optics’ crystal growing techniques consistently produce large lithium niobate crystals of exceptional quality. Lithium niobate has a broad transmission range from the visible to the mid-infrared and can be used for a variety of electro-optical and nonlinear optical applications.

Optical modulation and Q-switching. Thanks to its large electro-optic coefficients, lithium niobate is well suited to optical modulation and Q-switching of infrared wavelengths. Among its advantages in these applications are its low half-wave voltage and zero residual birefringence.

Nonlinear optical frequency conversion. Tunable wavelengths can be generated in lithium niobate over a broad range via phasematching processes. Lithium niobate can generate tunable infrared output via difference frequency mixing processes. For second harmonic generation of Nd:YAG lasers at 1.064 µm and low power laser diodes between 1.3 µm and 1.55 µm, lithium niobate is a highly efficient crystal.

Optical Design Notes

  • Consider using magnesium oxide doped lithium niobate (MgO:LiNbO3) for higher power applications. The addition of 5 mol% magnesium oxide (MgO) to lithium niobate produces material with significantly improved optical and photorefractive damage resistance. MgO doped lithium niobate is useful for high power laser applications. Inrad Optics offers MgO:LiNbO3 grown along the crystallographic x, y, or z axes in lengths up to 40 mm.
  • Consult the Inrad Optics white paper on electro-optic behavior for background information on the use of lithium niobate.
Material Properties 
Composition Congruent, 48.38 mol % Li2O
Crystal Symmetry and Class trigonal, R3c Point Group 3m
Lattice Parameters a =  5.15052 Å 
c = 13.86496 Å
Density 4.648  g/cm3
Mohs Hardness 5
Optical Class Uniaxial negative
Transmission Range 0.400 μm - 5.0 μm
Thermal Conductivity  @ 27 °C κ = 4.2 W/m·K
Thermal Expansion αa = 14.1 x 10-6 /K 
αc =  4.1 x 10-6 /K                  
Electro Optic Coefficients
@ 0.633 μm

T: unclamped
S: clamped

r13T = 10  pm/V
r22T = 7 pm/V
r13S =  9 pm/V
r22S =  3 pm/V
r33T = 33 pm/V
r51T =  33  pm/V
r33S = 31 pm/V
r51S = 28   pm/V

Dimensions

Typical apertures range from 3 mm up to 12 mm, but larger apertures are available on request. Available thicknesses range from 0.5 mm to 30 mm.

Finishing

  • Dielectric AR coating
  • Electrodes for Q-switching
  • Ring mounts compatible with standard optomechanics

Orientations

Standard cuts are available for OPO crystals, Q-switch elements, difference frequency mixing crystals and autocorrelation crystals.

Fill out this RFQ form for help in configuring your crystal.

Configuration Options

Designation Angle, θ Operation Input Output
"A" 68.8° DFM (564-600 nm) - 1064 nm  1200-1380 nm 
"B" 59.6° DFM (600-664 nm) - 1064 nm  1370-1770 nm 
SHG 1310 nm  655 nm 
"C" 46.8° DFM (664-923 nm) - 1064 nm  1770-4000 nm 
SHG 1550 nm  775 nm 
"D" 47° DFM 1064 - (1450-2000 nm)  2300-4000 nm 
OPO 1064 nm  1450-4000 nm 
"QS" Z Q-Switch    

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Barium borate (BBO) is a versatile nonlinear crystal, suitable for use in harmonic generation operations, optical parametric oscillators, and in electro-optical applications from the near infrared to the deep ultraviolet. Among BBO’s attractive features are it’s large nonlinear coefficients, high threshold for laser damage, and low thermo-optic coefficient.

At Inrad Optics, high quality BBO single crystals are grown using a top seeded solution growth technique. Our in-house growth, fabrication, and finishing provide unparalleled material traceability and process consistency.

Popular applications of BBO include generating the third, fourth, and fifth harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers (355nm, 266nm, and 213nm respectively), the second and third harmonics of Ti:Sapphire amplifiers (400nm and 266.7nm), and a variety of sum frequency mixing schemes using dye lasers.  BBO can be used in OPO configurations to generate tunable output in the visible to near infrared range. BBO is also well suited to Q-switching and other electro-optical applications in high power UV laser systems.

 

Material Properties
Chemical Formula ß - Ba2BO4
Crystal Symmetry and Class trigonal, R3c Point Group 3m
Lattice Parameters a = 12.547 Å
c = 12.736 Å
Density 3.85 g/cm3
Mohs Hardness 4.5
Optical Class Uniaxial negative
Transmission Range 0.198 μm – 2.6 μm
Thermal Conductivity κ = 0.08 W/m∙K ( ⊥c )
κ = 0.8 W/m∙K ( ∥ c )
Thermal Expansion
for T = 293 - 1173 K
α11 = 4 x 10-6 /K
α33 = 36 x 10-6 /K
Electro Optic Coefficients
@ 0.633 μm

T: unclamped
S: clamped

r22S = 2.1 pm/V
r22T = 2.5 pm/V

Dimensions

We fabricate and polish BBO crystals in a wide range of standard and custom sizes and orientations. Available lengths range from 50 µm for short-pulse work to 25 mm for nanosecond OPO/OPA use. Crystals are oriented in a double crystal x-ray spectrometer and are accurate to ± 5 minutes.

Finishing

  • BBO crystals are available with a dielectric coating to protect polished surfaces from fogging due to ambient moisture. AR coatings also reduce reflections from polished surfaces, improving transmission quality for all wavelengths.
  • Electrodes for Q-switching
  • Cut at Brewster’s angle
  • Ring mounts compatible with standard optomechanics

Fill out this RFQ form for help in configuring your crystal.

Configuration Options

Designation Angle, θ Operation Input Output
“0” 68.5° SHG 418-464 nm 209-232 nm
THG (600-665 nm) + (300-331 nm) 200-220 nm
“1” 53.2° SHG 454-560 nm 209-232 nm
THG (651-800 nm) + 325-400 nm) 217-266 nm
“2” 37.4° SHG 542-820 nm 271-410 nm
THG (774-1165 nm) + (387-582 nm) 258-388 nm
“A” 78° SHG 410-433 nm 205-216 nm
THG (594-620 nm) + (297-310 nm) 198-206 nm
“B” 55° SHG 448-543 nm 224-271 nm
THG (642-775 nm) + (321-358 nm) 214-258 nm
“C” 65° SHG 423-480 nm 211-240 nm
THG (608-687 nm) + (304-343 nm) 203-229 nm
“TSS” 28.7° SHG 636-1000 nm 318-500 nm
THG (906-2100 nm) + (453-1050 nm) 302-700 nm
“TST” 44° SHG 496-675 nm 248-337 nm
THG (710-960 nm) + (355-480 nm) 237-320 nm
“OPO1” 36.6° SHG 549-844 nm 275-422 nm
THG (784-1200 nm) + (392-600 nm) 262-400 nm
SFM 1064 nm + (510-567 nm) 345-370 nm
“OPO2” 57.5° SHG 440-525 nm 220-262 nm
THG (632-750 nm) + (316-375 nm) 211-250 nm
“M1” 50.2° SFM 1064 nm + (243-340 nm) 198-257 nm
“DGN” 31° SFM 1064 nm + (380-980 nm) 280-510 nm
“IDLR” 20° SHG 1380-1460 nm 690-730 nm
“OPO3” 30° OPO 355 nm 410-2000 nm
“SHG” 22.8° SHG 1064 nm 532 nm
“THG” 31.3° THG 1064 nm + 532 nm 355 nm
“4HG” 47.6° 4HG 532 nm 266 nm
22° SHG 1550 nm 775 nm

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